In 2019 we completed a study of the enforcement framework for secured and unsecured commercial claims in Albania, Croatia, Cyprus, Greece and Ukraine, which were selected for the high level of non-performing loans in the banking sector.

The study, which was conducted by the Legal Transition Team and a consortium of national law firms led by DLA Piper (Ukraine), identified some important trends in relation to (1) creation and perfection of security interests by registration, (2) digitalisation and technology and (3) judicial and extra-judicial enforcement mechanisms. The study was presented at a public conference at the EBRD on 6 December 2019 “Debt Enforcement in Europe and Beyond” and has been used by the EBRD in policy dialogue with national authorities. A discussion paper, containing an overview of the trends in the five national studies, was prepared for the conference.